Active in politics since she was 15 years old, she was elected Federal Member of Parliament for the first time at age 21. She has been Federal Member of Parliament three times, Local Member of Parliament, and a Constituent Member of Parliament in the Constituent Assembly of Mexico City. Additionally, she was the first woman to be elected Mayor of the Miguel Hidalgo Delegation in Mexico City. She also chaired the Foreign Relations Commission when she served as Senator.

Currently, she is Co-Chair of the UHC2030 Steering Committee and Co-Chair of The Lancet COVID-19 Commission’s Task Force on Humanitarian Relief, Social Protection, & Vulnerable Groups. She is also part of the Task Force on Global Health Diplomacy and Cooperation, and the Regional Task Force for Latin America. In addition, Ms. Cuevas is a member of the Unite Global Parliamentarians Network to End Infectious Diseases and the International Parliamentary Network for Education. She is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science.

In 2017, Gabriela Cuevas Barron became the youngest and the second woman President of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU). She sought to increase the prominence and prestige of the IPU as the global institution for parliamentarians. She also received the Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur by the Government of France, and the Cavaliere di Gran Croce, Ordine Equestre di Saint’ Agata on behalf of the Government of the Republic of San Marino.